Sanctions or restrictive measures in European Union (EU)1 terminology have become a key instrument in the toolbox of policymakers, including policymakers in the EU. Often the public discussion centers on sanctions implemented against governments of countries such as Iran2 or the Russian Federation.3 In Europe,...

National governments and international bodies like the United Nations (U.N.) and the European Union impose economic sanctions to force changes in behavior, whether that is through coercion, deterrence, punishment or shame to the countries, entities and individuals that endanger their interests or violate international...

In September 2018, the Netherlands’ largest bank, ING, received a record European fine of approximately $900 million for money laundering violations. Although ING’s fine was a particularly eye-catching figure, the money laundering violations themselves hardly felt surprising, as a number of Europe’s well-established banks...